1. Paper-made biodegradable disposable tableware: this kind of eco-friendly plates and cutlery mainly use wood pulp, reed pulp, or bagasse pulp as raw materials;
2. Plant fiber biodegradable disposable tableware: the main production raw materials of this type are rice husk or wheat husk, straw, corn cob, and other crop wastes;
3. Starch-based biodegradable disposable tableware: the starch-based tableware mainly uses potato flour as the main raw material;
4. Photodegradable and biodegradable non-foamed plastic biodegradable disposable tableware: mainly using polypropylene as raw material, this kind of biodegradable tableware normally add photodegradants and biodegradants to its raw materials so as to achieve degradation effect.
1. Appearance evaluation
2. Structure evaluation
3. Use performance testing items: volume deviation, load-bearing performance, drop performance, cover folding performance, heat resistance (hot water performance, heat oil, and cold), water leakage performance, water content
4. Heavy metal and specific element content test items: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, nickel, molybdenum, lead, selenium, zinc, etc.
5. Volatile solid content detection
6. Degradation performance detection
7. Compostable degradation performance: biological decomposition rate, disintegration rate, and eco-toxicity
In addition to the above points, the final requirement for biodegradable disposable dishes and any other environmentally friendly packaging is degradability. And in order to achieve the ideal degradability of the biodegradable cutlery and plates, manufacturers have to meet two standards.
One is that the relative biodegradation rate of the tableware should be equal to or more than 90%, and if the material composition is equal to or more than 1% of organic components, the biodegradation rate should be equal to or more than 60%;
Second, if the degradable tableware is composed of multiple materials or mixtures, organic ingredients with a component content of less than 1% should be biodegradable, but proof of decomposition ability may not be provided. The combined weight of each component should not exceed 5%. The disintegration rate is required to be equal to or more than 90%, and the ecotoxicity requires that the ratio of plant germination and plant biomass should exceed 90%.